Fletching is made up of three or more vanes or feathers. One of the fletches is a different color and is called the “cock” or “index” fletch. The remaining fletches are referred to as the “hen” fletching.
Fletching on an arrow shaft stabilizes the shaft during flight by causing it to spin as it leaves the bow, just as a quarterback puts a spiral spin on the football as he passes. Spinning keeps the arrow on its flight path and preserves speed, accuracy, and, ultimately, impact power.
Generally speaking, the fletching profile needs to be wider than the cutting diameter of the broadhead being shot, or arrow flight could be affected. It is recommended also that 4- to 5-inch fletching be used to compensate for broadhead size and weight.